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The following sources provide overviews of ideas, people, and events in the history of the medieval and early modern period. They are a quick way to find out the basic facts and current points of debate. When using an article in an encyclopedia or handbook, always check the bibliography for further reading at the end of the article.

It will provide a selective list of the books, articles, and, frequently, Web resources considered to be the most up-to-date and reliable. Literature Reviews Oxford Bibliographies Online. Renaissance and Reformation. Available at HC and BMC Extensive annotated bibliographies on specific topics in early modern history written by scholars in the field. This online resource has new entries added twice a year. A Portraiture of the City of Philadelphia. The volume for the 18th century has not yet been published. All published volumes are available here online.

Encyclopedia of Exploration to This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window. Extensive reference work on explorers, map makers, travel, and colonization through the early modern period. Encyclopedia of World Trade This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window.

This reference on the history of trade in all time periods traces interaction of commerce, travel and culture in detail. See articles of interest including Cartography and "Exploration and Trade. Oxford Companion to World Exploration This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window.

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  • This two-volume set provides more than articles covering exploration and navigation research from an historical perspective.. Chapters are written by experts in the various fields, providing subject overviews, analysis and recommendations for further reading. Provides a single-volume overview of current scholarship in the history of science edited by one of the leading figures in the field.

    Features forty essays by experts which reflect new approaches in the field. Complete dictionary of scientific biography This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window. William of Rubruck , a Flemish missionary who visited the Mongol court of Mongke Khan at Karakorum and returned to Europe in , was a friend of the English philosopher and scientific thinker Roger Bacon.

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    The latter recorded the earliest known European recipe for gunpowder in his Opus Majus of Bar Sauma, who spoke Chinese , Persian , and Old Uyghur , traveled with a cohort of Italians who served as translators, with Europeans communicating to him in Persian. Luttwak depicts the arrival of these Nestorian envoys to the court of the Byzantine ruler Andronikos II as something akin to "receiving mail from his in-law in Beijing," since Kublai Khan was a grandson of Genghis Khan and Andronikos had two half-sisters who were married to great-grandsons of Genghis.

    In the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty collapsed amid widespread internal revolt during the Red Turban Rebellion , whose Han Chinese leader would become the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty. The Italian Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci would be the first European invited into the Ming-era Forbidden City in Beijing during the reign of the Wanli Emperor , where in he would publish his map of the world in Chinese that introduced the existence of the American continents to Chinese geographers.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Homeschool History Curriculum Overview: The Story of the World Volume Two - The Middle Ages

    Further information: Chronology of European exploration of Asia. Lefthand image : The Sampul tapestry , a woolen wall hanging from Shanpula or Sampul; now in Lop County , Xinjiang , showing a possibly Greek soldier from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom — BC , with blue eyes , wielding a spear, and wearing what appears to be a diadem headband; depicted above him is a centaur , from Greek mythology , a common motif in Hellenistic art [6] Righthand image : Two Buddhist monks on a mural of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan , Xinjiang , China, 9th century AD; although Albert von Le Coq assumed the blue-eyed , red-haired monk was a Tocharian , [7] modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of the same cave temple No.

    Further information: China-Greece relations. Main article: Sino-Roman relations. Further information: Byzantine diplomacy , Byzantine-Mongol alliance , and Tang dynasty. Main article: History of gunpowder. Further information: History of the firearm and History of artillery. The dates between Sui to Yuan comprise the medieval period in Chinese history. Historians of Chinese history call this period the "Chinese Imperial Era", which began after the unification of the seven kingdoms by the Qin Dynasty — BC.

    With the Ming Dynasty , the early modern era began. Mair ed , Sino-Platonic Papers , No. Accessed 3 September See also endnote Watt, John P. O'Neill et. Ching-Jung Chen et. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe.

    The Internet's Premier Classical Music Source

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. The Telegraph. Retrieved BBC News. The Conversation. Page last modified 17 August Retrieved on 8 September Most of the soldiers of Alexander the Great who stayed in Persia, India and central Asia had married local women, thus their leading generals were mostly Greeks from their father's side or had Greco-Macedonian grandfathers. Antiochos had a Persian mother, and all the later Indo-Greeks or Greco-Bactrians were revered in the population as locals, as they used both Greek and Bactrian scripts on their coins and worshipped the local gods.

    Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, p. John E. Hill ed. Translated by John E.

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    Fordham University. Juliano and Judith A. I, pp. Liezhuan They were very skilful in acrobatics and they could do a thousand other things. They said that they were from the "west of the seas" Haixi—Egypt. The west of the seas is the Daqin Rome. The Daqin is situated to the south-west of the Chan country. During the following year, Andi organized festivities in his country residence and the acrobats were transferred to the Han capital where they gave a performance to the court, and created a great sensation.

    They received the honours of the Emperor, with gold and silver, and every one of them received a different gift. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved on 14 November Neubauer Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; rpr.

    The Middle Ages

    Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd, , p. Yates 29 April Stanford: Stanford University Press. In Lacy, Norris J. New York: Garland, p. Berkeley: University of California Press, , p. Accessed 6 September London: Penguin Books Ltd. Buell 12 February Scarecrow Press.

    From the Reference Collection

    Buell 19 March Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire. Agenzia Fides. Universal Knowledge Foundation. Clark 7 April Lexington Books. Bays 9 June A New History of Christianity in China. The Franciscans in the Middle Ages. Boydell Press. The Church in China. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Buell 1 January History of the Franciscan Movement 4 ".

    Christus Rex. Archived from the original on Institutes of Ecclesiastical History: Ancient and Modern Authentic Memoirs of the Christian Church in China. Adegi Graphics LLC. Authentic Memoirs of the Christian Church in China Grant DK Pub. The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Harvard University Press. Asian Educational Services. Kraus Reprint. Bretschneider Cathay and the Way Thither: Missionary friars. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Spence V, Pt. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, p.